RESEARCH TOOLS

Designing Strategic Management Experiments:
A Best Practices Guide and Checklist

This guide is intended to aid researchers who are relatively new to experiments to get started with experimental designs. Several design considerations are put forth in this guide including concerns that are somewhat unique to conducting experiments in the strategic management context. By no means is this guide intended to be fully exhaustive of all experimental considerations. Rather it should be used in conjunction with the main review paper forthcoming in the Journal of Management (Bolinger, Josefy, Stevenson & Hitt, 2022) and other best practice papers and texts on experimental research. We believe experiments constitute an underused complementary methodology that has significant potential for strategic management researchers and we hope this guide can serve as a catalyst for novel experimental work in our field.

Click here to download the guide and checklist in pdf format

Psychometric Scales

Coachability Scale

Coachability Scale (first person)

Use: Provide to entrepreneurs or prospective entrepreneurs.

Instruction:
When it comes to my business, I…  

(1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=somewhat disagree, 4=neither agree nor disagree, 5=somewhat agree, 6=agree, 7=strongly agree). 


Items:

  1. generally trust the expertise of others.

  2. genuinely consider feedback from others.

  3. want to learn.

  4. exhibit a genuine respect for others that are providing feedback.

  5. am attentive when receiving feedback.

  6. proactively seek help and advice.

  7. am genuinely committed to improving the venture.

  8. understand the challenges of the venture.

  9. do not get upset or angry when given corrective feedback.


Factors:
Two factors (a) Seek–integrate feedback, and (b) consider feedback.

Citation: Ciuchta, M., Letwin, C., Stevenson, R, McMahon, S., & Huvaj, M.N. (2018). Betting on the coachable entrepreneur: Signaling and social exchange in entrepreneurial pitches. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. Link

Coachability Scale (third person)

Use: Provide to coaches, mentors, investors, or other third-parties that observe entrepreneurs as they work or during a pitch setting.

Instruction:
When rating that entrepreneur please consider only that entrepreneur and not any other founders or employees. In each box below place a number from 1 to 7 to correspond to how strongly you agree with each statement for each entrepreneur (1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=somewhat disagree, 4=neither agree nor disagree, 5=somewhat agree, 6=agree, 7=strongly agree). 

Items:

  1. The entrepreneur trusts the investor panel's expertise.

  2. The entrepreneur genuinely considers feedback.

  3. The entrepreneur wants to learn.

  4. The entrepreneur exhibits a genuine respect for the investor panel.

  5. The entrepreneur appears attentive when receiving feedback.

  6. The entrepreneur proactively seeks help and advice.

  7. The entrepreneur is genuinely committed to improving the venture.

  8. The entrepreneur understands the challenges of the venture.

  9. The entrepreneur does not get upset or angry when given corrective feedback.

Factors:
Two factors (a) Seek–integrate feedback, and (b) consider feedback.

Citation:
Ciuchta, M., Letwin, C., Stevenson, R., McMahon, S., & Huvaj, M.N. (2018). Betting on the coachable entrepreneur: Signaling and social exchange in entrepreneurial pitches. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. Link

Entrepreneurial Hustle Scale

Entrepreneurial Hustle Scale (first person)

Use: Provide to entrepreneurs or prospective entrepreneurs.

Instruction
(1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=somewhat disagree, 4=neither agree nor disagree, 5=somewhat agree, 6=agree, 7=strongly agree). 

“During my entrepreneurial endeavors…”


Items:
Urgency Items
1. I work urgently to realize opportunities.
2. I act rapidly to improve my venture.
3. I quickly seize opportunities.
4. I act urgently to solve problems.
5. I urgently push through in spite of difficulties.
6. I work quickly to overcome immediate challenges.
7. I promptly address problems that impede venture progress.

Unorthodoxy Items
1. I take unorthodox actions to pursue opportunities.
2. My approach to overcoming obstacles is unconventional.
3. I have unorthodox ways of approaching problems.
4. I pursue opportunities by doing things differently than others.
5. My approach to solving problems tends to be unusual.
6. The actions I take to develop my venture are out of the ordinary.
7. I deviate from normal behavior to develop my venture.

Factors:
Two factors (a) urgency and (b) unorthodoxy.

Citation: Burnell, Neubert, Fisher, Stevenson, Kuratko & Marvel (2022). Entrepreneurial Hustle: Development and Validation of a Scale to Measure Entrepreneurial Hustle. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3910832 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3910832

Entrepreneurial Hustle Scale (third person)

Use: Provide to coaches, mentors, investors, or other third-parties that observe entrepreneurs as they work or during a pitch setting.

Instruction
(1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=somewhat disagree, 4=neither agree nor disagree, 5=somewhat agree, 6=agree, 7=strongly agree). 

“The entrepreneur... ”


Items:
Urgency Items
1. works urgently to realize opportunities.
2. acts rapidly to improve my venture.
3. quickly seizes opportunities.
4. acts urgently to solve problems.
5. urgently pushes through in spite of difficulties.
6. works quickly to overcome immediate challenges.
7. promptly addresses problems that impede venture progress.

Unorthodoxy Items
1. takes unorthodox actions to pursue opportunities.
2. overcomes obstacles with unconventional approaches.
3. has unorthodox ways of approaching problems.
4. pursues opportunities by doing things differently than others.
5. solves problems in unusual ways.
6. Takes actions to develop the venture that are out of the ordinary.
7. Deviates from normal behavior to develop the venture.

Factors:
Two factors (a) urgency and (b) unorthodoxy.

Citation: Burnell, Neubert, Fisher, Stevenson, Kuratko & Marvel (2022). Entrepreneurial Hustle: Development and Validation of a Scale to Measure Entrepreneurial Hustle. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3910832 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3910832

Legitimacy Lies Scale

Legitimacy Lies Scale (first person - English)

Use: Provide to entrepreneurs or prospective entrepreneurs.

Instruction
(1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=somewhat disagree, 4=neither agree nor disagree, 5=somewhat agree, 6=agree, 7=strongly agree). 

Items:
1. I amplified the benefits of my company

2. I glorified the company

3. Although uncertain, I presented a clear vision for what my company will become

4. I described my company as more positive than it is

5. I proclaimed my company to be more successful than it currently is.

Factors:
One factor

Citation: Forthcoming citation

Legitimacy Lies Scale (first person - Brazilian Portuguese)

Use: Provide to entrepreneurs or prospective entrepreneurs.

Instruction
(1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=somewhat disagree, 4=neither agree nor disagree, 5=somewhat agree, 6=agree, 7=strongly agree). 

Items:

1. Eu apresentei uma visão clara do que a empresa pode se tornar, embora ainda com um future incerto,

2. Eu descrevi a empresa da forma mais positiva possível.

3. Eu enalteci a empresa.

4. Eu amplifiquei os benefícios da minha empresa.

5. Eu comuniquei que minha empresa é mais bem-sucedida do que é atualmente.

Factors:
One factor

Citation: Forthcoming citation